Non-Resident Indians

Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin

Overseas Indians, officially known as Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) or Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs), are people of Indian birth, descent or origin who live outside the Republic of India. According to a Ministry of External Affairs report, there are 32 million NRIs and PIOs residing outside India

Non-resident Indian (NRI)[edit]

Strictly asserting, the term says non-resident refers only to the tax status of a citizen who, as per section 6 of the Income-tax Act of 1961, has not resided in India for a specified period for the purposes of the Income Tax Act.[7] The rates of income tax are different for persons who are “resident in India” and for NRIs. For the purposes of the Income Tax Act, “residence in India” requires stay in India of at least 182 days in a financial year or 365 days spread out over four consecutive years and at least 60 days in that year. According to the act, any Indian citizen who does not meet the criteria as a “resident of India” is a non-resident of India and is treated as NRI for paying income tax.

Person of Indian origin (PIO)

A person of Indian origin (PIO) means a foreign citizen (except a national of PakistanAfghanistanBangladeshChinaIranBhutanSri Lanka and/or Nepal), who:

  • at any time held an Indian passport or
  • either of their parents/grandparents/great-grandparents were born and permanently resident in India as defined in Government of India Act, 1935 and other territories that became part of India thereafter provided neither was at any time a citizen of any of the aforesaid countries (as referred above) or
  • is a spouse of a citizen of India or a PIO.

Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI)

After multiple efforts by leaders across the Indian political spectrum, a pseudo-citizenship scheme was established, the “Overseas Citizenship of India”, commonly referred to as the OCI card. The Constitution of India does not permit full dual citizenship. The OCI card is effectively a long-term visa, with restrictions on voting rights and government jobs. The card is available to certain PIOs, and while it affords holders residency and other rights, it does have restrictions, and is not considered to be any type of Indian citizenship from a constitutional perspective.[citation needed]

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